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For my first Tesla reel, I decided to use the simplest principle.
Check out my Youtube video : Bobine Tesla 80 000V SGTC
The real name is SGTC (Spark Gap Tesla Coil). Most of the time, a large neon sign transformer (spark gap) is used.
The principle of a tesla coil is similar to that of a transformer. There is a primary coil with large wire and few turns and a secondary coil with small wire and many towers. So if, for example, we send a voltage of 100V in the primary coil and the ratio of our coils is 1: 100, we will get 10000V at the output. But, in fact, it's a little more complex than that ...
The circuit is divided into two parts. The first is the spark gap formed by the capacitor (C1) and the primary coil (L1). The second part consists of the secondary coil (L2) and the toroid which acts as a capacitor (C2). In order for your tesla coil to work correctly, the first part (L1 and C1) must be tuned to the second part (L2 and C2). To do this, the frequency of resonance is used! If your first part has the same resonant frequency as your second part, then there is going to be an energy transfer. Otherwise, nothing will happen at all. To tune your circuits, you can use the formula: L1C1 = L2C2. Then to find the resonant frequency of your system, simply apply the following formula:
For the primary coil, I use 0.375 "diameter copper tubing for all physical reasons. When a strong current with a high frequency passes through a copper wire, the energy is projected onto the walls of the wire because of the skin effect also called the pellicular effect. Thus, by using a tube, the capacity of the tesla coil is optimized. For the secondary coil, I use 28 AWG wire. It took about 1600 feet of wire to make about 1600 turns on a 4 "diameter PVC pipe.
If you plan to make a tesla coil with semiconductors as an SSTC, I strongly suggest you use HGTG30N60A4D IGBT transistors that you can purchase in the Fairchild section of Farnell. These are the most used IGBTs for this kind of project!
For my first part with the C1 and L1, I use four capacitors in series of 0.15uF / 2000V each, making 0.0375uF under 8000V.
Most people who make a tesla coil of this type use neon sign transformers (NST -> Neon Sign Transformer). These transformers are perfect because they provide very high voltages with very low current. Unlike microwave transformers that offer a very high current, which can be dangerous. Me, I decided to make a system with electronic components to reduce the weight that a NST transformer produces. So I looked at a MOSFET-based system like Mazilli's. This is a ZVS Driver. (Zero Voltage Switching). This is similar to my project on flybacks, but the difference stems from the fact that it is much more powerful in terms of current.
Under 12V my system consumes about 4A and creates arcs of about 15 cm. When I triple the input voltage, that is to say if I use 36V, my system consumes about 6A and creates arcs of about 25 cm as in the picture below.
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|<--- Schematic||<--- Complete schematic|
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Good luck for building your tesla coil! The best advice I can give you is to do a lot of research to understand the principle of operation before you embark on the concrete realization of your project. Also, be very careful, because it is a very dangerous project. Take precautions, be careful!